Green Energy and Sustainability ISSN 2771-1641

Green Energy and Sustainability 2021;1(2):0006 |

Original Research Open Access

Design optimization of multi energy systems for domestic hot water uses on the building sector

Vasileios Kilis 1 , Nikolaos Ploskas 2 , Giorgos Panaras 1

  • Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, Bacola & Sialvera, 50132, Kozani, Greece
  • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, Karamanli & Ligeris, 50131, Kozani, Greece

Correspondence: Giorgos Panaras

Academic Editor(s): George Papadakis

Received: Sep 30, 2021 | Accepted: Nov 4, 2021 | Published: Dec 17, 2021

This article belongs to the Special Issue

Cite this article: Kilis V, Ploskas N, Panaras G. Design optimization of multi energy systems for domestic hot water uses on the building sector. Green Energy Sustain 2021; 1(2):0006.


The burden that has come upon the environment, combined with the ever-declining fossil fuel reserves, has led to the need of reducing the conventional energy consumption in building sector and to the promotion of systems based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES). This paper deals with the optimization of multi energy systems in order to cover the needs of hot water in domestic use. In particular, integer linear programming models are formulated and the optimal solutions regarding the degree of participation of the multi energy systems are explored; economic, energy, and environmental criteria are assumed. The respective mathematical programming approaches include linear objective functions, multiple objective functions that either do or do not use weights, as well as goal programming-based ones. The modeling and solution of the problems is done with the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS).

The case study refers to residential use; both conventional and RES systems are selected for the respective energy demand coverage. The time step of the analysis is 1 hour, in the context of annual operation. According to the results, in the case of the energy criterion, biomass predominates, or heat pumps, when biomass is not included, with an increase in participation of solar thermal collectors when the environmental criterion is introduced. The participation of solar thermal factor is also reinforced in the case of goal programming, because of the relaxation of the initial targets. The analysis demonstrated that the existing integer linear programming methodological tools can be used for investigating problems of multiple energy systems or comparing subsystems.


optimization, multi energy systems, energy hub, linear programming, domestic hot water, renewable energy systems

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